Teaching Vocabulary Using Short Texts

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             Vocabulary is used to be given the students the list of word form or term. Nowadays, the vocabulary is often used to present texts. In based on the fact that vocabulary building purposes of texts whether spoken or written. These have huge advantages over learning words from lists. For the beginning, the fact that words increases the chances of learners appreciating in context not only about the meaning but also in environments typically, such as their connected collocations or grammatical structures. Besides, it is likely that the text will display topically connected sets of words (or lexical fields).

Research facts suggest that the words loosely connected by topic that may be easier to learn than more closely connected the lexical sets. For classroom usage, short texts are perfect, while they can be subjected to intensive grammatical and lexical study, without overtaxing students’ attention or memory, as may be in the case is used longer texts. Learning to manage short texts is also good preparation for independent reading and listening, include dealing with longer texts. As well, short texts present useful models for student production, in the form of speaking and writing. This “lexical detective” has done work, students can do it and then they try to rebuild the text from their memory, or write a 50-word summary of it. Different kinds of texts (or genres) are likely to display different lexical features. For example is academic writing that is noted for having a higher proportion of nouns over verbs than non-academic texts. To summaries, short authentic texts (including literary texts) are rich in vocabulary learning potential. They display words in loose relationship and also in particular text type. Moreover, a large part of their coherence is suitable to their lexical patterning. Listing a collection such as texts and giving confidence to the students to find their own resource.

 

Scott Thornbury. 2003. Teaching Vocabulary Using Short Texts. The Asian EFL Journal Volume 5 Issue 4. Available at: http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/dec_03_vn.pdf [access at 03/09/2012].

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Teaching Vocabulary

  Image          The teaching vocabulary main problem is only the relation a few word and small part to know and choose word that to be relevant with the situation. People may confuse how to use the words and how if the words don’t match with the term of the situation. They may be fear to make mistake. So, teaching vocabulary is to learn words and differences from word to word not only the meaning but also how to apply in the context that based on relation the word itself with first language knowledge and it is existence on second language knowledge or other known languages. In another meaning, teaching vocabulary is to consider each aspect of what is involved in knowing a word. It can be calculate in the case of classroom activity between teacher and students that use a variety of first languages, but the teacher has no knowledge of the students’ L1.  So, the best solution is to think if the word fits into regular patterns in the L2. It cannot be used as a verb or a rude word and is not restricted to a particular dialect of English. It can be seen in its word spelling, the form-of meaning connection and in its collocations both L1 and L2. In the preparation of teaching vocabulary activities, the teacher just need little preparation.  The important preparation involves know the word. Based on these activities, the students can work together in pairs or small groups. Then the students that are taught some aspects of the words, they do labeling, completion, rewording, classifying, correcting or matching activities. In many Asian, learning vocabulary, both within and outside of reading has been a key part of English education contexts where traditionally stressed. There is need for more approaches centered of the student that improve both the retention and usage in a progressive fashion that goes beyond rote memorization. The analysis here is supportive to this end of the teaching vocabularies result.

 

Nation, Paul.  2005. Teaching Vocabulary Volume 7 Issue 3, page 47-54. The Asian EFL Journal September 2005. http://www.asian-efl-journal.com.

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BEHAVIORISM ~Theory of Learning~

Behaviorism is learning theory based on behavior that is conditioned. Pitler, H. et. Al (2007: p.155) state that, “enhances students’ understanding of the relationship between effort and achievement by addressing their attitudes and beliefs about learning”. In the other hand, Parkay & Hass (2000) mentioned that “An individual selects one response instead of another because of prior conditioning and psychological drives existing at the moment of the action”. The conditioning in the process of measuring behavior is occurred with environment interaction. Studying behavior means studying internal states such as, cognition, emotion and moods that only observable. By these schools of thought, behaviorism is a conditioned situation in teaching language by giving stimuli and imitation.

There are 3 several behaviorism techniques:

a. Classical conditioning
“Classical conditioning is a type of learning which based on the association of stimulus that does not ordinary elicits a particular response with another stimulus that does elicit the response” [Papalia, Feldman, & Olds 2007]. It occurs when a natural reflex responds to a stimulus. Skinner remarked that “the things we call pleasant have an energizing or strengthening effect on our behavior” (1972: p. 74). The key element in classical conditioning is association. It means that if two stimuli repeatedly experienced together, they will become associated.
In classical conditioning, there are 2 types of stimulus and 2 types of response that controlled behavioral response. They are:
– unconditioned stimulus– without any stimulus
– conditioned stimulus– giving stimulus
– unconditioned response– unresponsive without giving stimulus
– conditioned response– response is produce by conditional stimuli

b. Operant conditioning
“Behavior that brings about a satisfying effect (reinforcement) is apt to be performed again, whereas behavior that brings about negative effect (punishment) is apt to be suppressed.” (Morris & Maisto, 2001). It occurs when a response to a stimulus is reinforced. Basically, operant conditioning is a simple feedback system: reward and punishment. Orey (2001) states “behavior that goes unrewarded will be extinguished”. Be careful by giving punishment. Because punishment has some effects, such as: Punishment can be abusive and create a new problem, this is aggression. Students commonly react to physical punishment by learning to dislike the punisher and perhaps by reacting aggressively toward that person
c. Social learning theory
Learning theory extends behaviorism. Both behaviorism and social learning theory agree that experience is an important cause of learning. They also include the concepts of reinforcement and punishment in their explanation of behavior. Furthermore, they agree that feedback is important in promoting learning (Eggen and Kaucak, 2007).
“Observational learning is so common and so powerful” [Hinrichs, 2004]. And, “Both social and cognitive factors play important roles in learning” [Bandura, 1989].

Behavior modification is a method of eliciting better classroom performance from reluctant students. It has six basic components:
1. Specification of the desired outcome
2. Development of a positive, nurturing environment
3. Identification and use of appropriate reinforces (intrinsic and extrinsic rewards).
4. Reinforcement of behavior patterns develop until the student has established a pattern of success in engaging in class discussions.
5. Reduction in the frequency of rewards–a gradual decrease the amount of one-on-one review with the student before class discussion.
6. Evaluation and assessment of the effectiveness of the approach based on teacher expectations and student results. Compare the frequency of student responses in class discussions to the amount of support provided, and determine whether the student is independently engaging in class discussions (Brewer, Campbell, & Petty, 2000).

For the teacher, the following implications of the behavior model of learning are relevant:

1. learn Language is to use or practice.
2. The production of language based on the situation which necessary use.
3. Producing the correct linguistic response also requires effort.
4. Producing the correct response also requires attention.
5. The spoken language comes earlier than the written, and the receptive (passive) experience of language is necessary before any productive (active) use can begin.
6. Learning takes place faster if the correct response toward stimulus is confirmed. The learner must know at once if his effort is right or wrong (rewarded).
7. Learning is still faster if the learner is placed to the situation where he can produce only the correct response. Each incorrect response builds up a faculty behaviour pattern, which interfere with the process of conditioning.
8. Every new item learnt must be reinforced by further practice before further learning begins.

Homework and Practice is seen “as an extension of the classroom” which “provides opportunities for students to deepen their understanding of the content and to gain proficiency of their skills” (Pitler, H. et. al, 2007, p.187).

bibliography

Brown, H Douglas. 2000. Principle of Language Learning and Teaching. New York:Longmann.
Boeree, C. George . 2006. B. F. SKINNER. available at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/skinner.html [access on 01/10/2012]
Cherry, Kendra. 2012. What is Behaviorism? Available at http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/f/behaviorism.htm [online at 06/10/2012]
Ferro, Maria C. 2011. Behaviorism and Educational Technology. available at http://teachtechcolombia.blogspot.com/2011/11/behaviorism-and-educational-technology.html [access at 09/10/2012]
Purwarno. 2005. Behaviorism Approach. Available at http://purwarno-linguistics.blogspot.com/2005/12/behaviourist-approach.html [online at 06/10/2012]
Standridge, Melissa. 2012. What is Behaviorism? available at http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Review_of_Behaviorism [online at 05/10/2012]
……Behaviorism. available at http://www.learning-theories.com/behaviorism.html [access on 01/10/2012]
……Overview of Behavioral Theories. available at http://viking.coe.uh.edu/%7Eichen/ebook/et-it/behavior.htm#overview [access at 10/10/2012]
……..2011. Behaviorism. available at http://www.funderstanding.com/theory/behaviorism/ [access on 01/10/2012]
…….Behaviorism Chapter 4. available at http://peoplelearn.homestead.com/BEduc/Chapter_4.pdf [access on 30/09/2012]

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little note

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i woke up in this morning after had dreamed about something

just questions of my life

look alike child who lost on her way and asks the direction with herself

tomorrow, my vacation is over

i must to go to work again

when i realized it, i hasn’t finished my tasks…

wow,

now, i just sit down, and dreaming again

how beautiful dream is…

but my real world is waiting me

here i go

with spirit, do my tasks >=)

ehemm, after i had breakfast =P

~lazy girl’s mind~

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