Behaviorism is learning theory based on behavior that is conditioned. Pitler, H. et. Al (2007: p.155) state that, “enhances students’ understanding of the relationship between effort and achievement by addressing their attitudes and beliefs about learning”. In the other hand, Parkay & Hass (2000) mentioned that “An individual selects one response instead of another because of prior conditioning and psychological drives existing at the moment of the action”. The conditioning in the process of measuring behavior is occurred with environment interaction. Studying behavior means studying internal states such as, cognition, emotion and moods that only observable. By these schools of thought, behaviorism is a conditioned situation in teaching language by giving stimuli and imitation.
There are 3 several behaviorism techniques:
a. Classical conditioning
“Classical conditioning is a type of learning which based on the association of stimulus that does not ordinary elicits a particular response with another stimulus that does elicit the response” [Papalia, Feldman, & Olds 2007]. It occurs when a natural reflex responds to a stimulus. Skinner remarked that “the things we call pleasant have an energizing or strengthening effect on our behavior” (1972: p. 74). The key element in classical conditioning is association. It means that if two stimuli repeatedly experienced together, they will become associated.
In classical conditioning, there are 2 types of stimulus and 2 types of response that controlled behavioral response. They are:
– unconditioned stimulus– without any stimulus
– conditioned stimulus– giving stimulus
– unconditioned response– unresponsive without giving stimulus
– conditioned response– response is produce by conditional stimuli
b. Operant conditioning
“Behavior that brings about a satisfying effect (reinforcement) is apt to be performed again, whereas behavior that brings about negative effect (punishment) is apt to be suppressed.” (Morris & Maisto, 2001). It occurs when a response to a stimulus is reinforced. Basically, operant conditioning is a simple feedback system: reward and punishment. Orey (2001) states “behavior that goes unrewarded will be extinguished”. Be careful by giving punishment. Because punishment has some effects, such as: Punishment can be abusive and create a new problem, this is aggression. Students commonly react to physical punishment by learning to dislike the punisher and perhaps by reacting aggressively toward that person
c. Social learning theory
Learning theory extends behaviorism. Both behaviorism and social learning theory agree that experience is an important cause of learning. They also include the concepts of reinforcement and punishment in their explanation of behavior. Furthermore, they agree that feedback is important in promoting learning (Eggen and Kaucak, 2007).
“Observational learning is so common and so powerful” [Hinrichs, 2004]. And, “Both social and cognitive factors play important roles in learning” [Bandura, 1989].
Behavior modification is a method of eliciting better classroom performance from reluctant students. It has six basic components:
1. Specification of the desired outcome
2. Development of a positive, nurturing environment
3. Identification and use of appropriate reinforces (intrinsic and extrinsic rewards).
4. Reinforcement of behavior patterns develop until the student has established a pattern of success in engaging in class discussions.
5. Reduction in the frequency of rewards–a gradual decrease the amount of one-on-one review with the student before class discussion.
6. Evaluation and assessment of the effectiveness of the approach based on teacher expectations and student results. Compare the frequency of student responses in class discussions to the amount of support provided, and determine whether the student is independently engaging in class discussions (Brewer, Campbell, & Petty, 2000).
For the teacher, the following implications of the behavior model of learning are relevant:
1. learn Language is to use or practice.
2. The production of language based on the situation which necessary use.
3. Producing the correct linguistic response also requires effort.
4. Producing the correct response also requires attention.
5. The spoken language comes earlier than the written, and the receptive (passive) experience of language is necessary before any productive (active) use can begin.
6. Learning takes place faster if the correct response toward stimulus is confirmed. The learner must know at once if his effort is right or wrong (rewarded).
7. Learning is still faster if the learner is placed to the situation where he can produce only the correct response. Each incorrect response builds up a faculty behaviour pattern, which interfere with the process of conditioning.
8. Every new item learnt must be reinforced by further practice before further learning begins.
Homework and Practice is seen “as an extension of the classroom” which “provides opportunities for students to deepen their understanding of the content and to gain proficiency of their skills” (Pitler, H. et. al, 2007, p.187).
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